今年的7月對觀星者是個美好的一月,7/27開始會出現「火星大衝」的天文奇觀,預計在31日最接近地球,還會巧遇月全食。這一次,我們不但以肉眼就能觀看到火星,如果用上望遠鏡觀察,還可以看見比平常更大,更亮的火星。

火星大接近英文稱之為Mars Close Approach,Approach(接近)不但是多益常見單字,還有一個平常大家較不熟悉的用法,看完這篇文章不但可以學英文,還可以跟外國友人聊聊這次天文盛事!

Approach

Approach除了可以作動詞,也可作名詞,有接近、靠近之意。

例句1:The end-of-year party is approaching.(尾牙派對即將到來了。)

例句2:She approached me about the rumors.(她來找我談謠言一事。)

從上述例句就可以看出,兩個例句的approach用法都是動詞,例句1指的是某件活動、日期的到來,是接近的意思。而例句2則是一個延伸的用法,字面上有靠近某人的意思,不過approach sb about sth是一個特殊用法,指的是為了某件事情(about sth)而找某人談(approach sb),算是英文常用的語句。

另外,approach作為名詞使用時還有方法之意,而且是重點強調解決某事的方法,其用法為the approach to sth。

如果要使用這個用法,請記得要用to當作介系詞,用法和the answer to the question(針對某個問題的解答)相似。

例句1:Let’s try another approach to the matter.(針對這件事,我們再試試別的方法。)

例句2:The approach of spring brings warm weather. (春天的到來帶來了溫暖的天氣。)

雖然上述兩個例句的approach都採用了名詞的用法,不過意思卻大大不同。例句1很明顯是指「方法、手法」之意,而例句2則是採用「靠近、接近」之意,并用of當作介系詞表達「接近~」,因此可以在閱讀時藉由不同的介系詞,來判斷單字的意思。

其實從上述的例句中,我們可以發現有許多英文單字都是一字多義,而這也讓很多人困惑究竟要如何判斷單字意思。當然,最好的辦法就是從前後文來判斷,但其實也可以靠著collocations(搭配詞)的用法來增加判斷力,如approach配上不同的介系詞就會表達不同的意思。

因此,建議讀者可透過英文例句來理解單字的正確語意與使用方法,這樣會比靠中文翻譯更容易掌握單字用法。

Method

Method的意思是方法,不過跟approach不太相同,前者是表達完成一件事情的方式,強調一個過程所採用的手法,有比較實際明確的面向,而後者則是針對事件採取的解決方案。如果還是不太清楚,接下來我們就用3句話來為讀者分析method與approach的概念。

Approach is what you are going to teach.(Approach指的是你要教什麼。)

Method is how you are going to teach.(Method指的是你要如何教。)

Approach is general and method is specific.(Approach比較通用的,而method則較明確的。)

看完這3句話,你是否對approach和method之間的區別有比較多的認知了呢?接下來,我們就直接透過例句的方式,讓你更加了解method的使用方法。

There is an urgent need for a more effective method of treating this disease.(人們需要一個更有效的方法來治療這個疾病。)

Scientists will come up with new methods of increasing the world's food supply.(科學家將會想出提升全世界食物供給的新方法。)

從例句可看出,使用method的兩個例句都著重在實際解決問題過程採用的手法。而method針對某事件的方法是用of這個介系詞,和採用to的approach不一樣。

多益模擬試題

Green Links Golf Symposium
Bring Your Game to the Next Level

Sure, it's just a hobby, but like anything you do, you want to be the best. The Green
Links Golf Symposium is a three-day jump-start for your golf game. Designed for the
avid golfer, the symposium features three former Golf Tour Champions, including
veteran golfer Grady O'Shanahan.

Friday, May 4
Topic: Woods
Session led by Jeeman Pukman

Jeeman Pukman, consistently one of the longest drivers on the tour will spend the day taking participants through the key points of his trademark backstroke, the proper way to swing through the ball from the hips instead of the arms, and the ways to avoid slices.

Saturday, May 5
Topic: Irons
Session led by Gil Marconi

Irons are the key to reaching the green. Gil Marconi will focus on three aspects of the approach shot using irons, how to achieve the proper height, ways to increase
backspin on the ball, and how to hit the ball farther using a shorter stroke.

Sunday, May 6
Topic: Putting
Session led by Grady O'Shanahan

As everyone knows, great putting is the key that allows you into the clubhouse of
great golfers, but poor skills will keep you forever an outsider. Grady O'Shanahan,
one of the best putters of all time will take you from reading the green to controlling
the club head.

Call now for reservations: (626)555-1212. Registration fee $99.00
Location: George Palmer Golf Course

1. Who will teach participants to control specific parts of their bodies?

(A) Jeeman Pukman
(B) Gil Marconi
(C) Grady O'Shanahan
(D) George Palmer

2. What do the symposium session leaders have in common?

(A) They have participated in the symposium before.
(B) They are all champion golfers.
(C) They all excel at putting.
(D) They all hope to become avid golfers.

解析

1.正確答案為(A)。題意為「誰會教導參加者控制身體的特定部位?」

試題文章中第一場座談會是由高爾夫球星Jeeman Pukman所帶領,文中有提到他會教導參加者學習the proper way to swing through the ball from the hips instead of the arms「正確揮桿擊球的方法,從臀部發力,而非用雙臂」,這就清楚表明了第一場座談會所要教導的是揮桿時要如何控制身體特定部位,而特定部位指的就是臀部,故正解為(A)。

2. 正確答案為(B)。題意為「座談為各場次主講有什麼共通點?」

試題文章一開頭說到Designed for the avid golfer, the symposium features three former Golf Tour Champions, including veteran golfer Grady O'Shanahan. 「內容設計給高爾夫熱衷份子,座談會邀請三位前高爾夫巡迴冠軍主講,包含經驗老道的球星Grady O’Shanahan.」因為得過冠軍就是這些球星的共同點,所以正解為(B)。

※延伸閱讀》自修拚出多益875分!初中學歷阿伯如何辦到?